General Consumption of Global Energy
By Doc. Petraq Vasil 6 / November /2011
General energy consumption worldwide, the needs of human society, can be calculated by accepting it as the basis of consumption for the year 2008, provided that for reasons of improving technologies and strategies implemented savings, according to specialists can be accepted a reduction of about 9 %, compared him to realize in 2008, and finally accepted value:
474 EJ / year expressed in EkzaJoule (EkzaJoule 1 EJ = 1018 J ) or,
132 TkWh / year expressed in 1 TkWh = 1012 kWh)
( normally understood as 132.000 billion kWh / year).
In this exhibition, available to global energies, will show the consumer to realize achievements in 2008 not only as detailed consumption by countries or areas, but also how they are produced, exported these global power. Therefore these events are shown below in tabular form as a demonstration occurred in 2008.
Consumption by Energy Resource:
Resource TkWh /Year %
Oil: 48.2 33.5
Coal 38.5 26.8
Gas 30.1 20..9
Nuclear 8.3 5.8
Hydraulic 3.2 2.2
Renewable 15.3 10.6
Other 0.2 0.2
Total 143.8 100 %
Main Energy consumer:
Territory Consumption Population TkWh / Year
kWh / capita in million
USA 87,216 305 26.6
EU -27 40,821 499 20.4
Middle East 34,774 199 6.9
China 18,608 1,333 24.8
Latin America 14,421 462 6.7
Africa 7,792 984 7.7
India 6,280 1,140 7.2
World 21,283 6,688,102 142.3
Countries Million Ton / Year
Saudi Arabia 509
United Arab Emirates 136
Furnished Oil :
Countries TkWh / Year %
North America 12.6 26
Asia excl. China 9.2 21
China 4.1 10
EU 8.1 17
Africa 1.6 4
Russia 2.8 3
Others 9.8 18
Total 48.2 100 %
Countries TkWh / Year
North America 6,740
Asia without China 7,485
United Europe 3,499
Coal Furnished :
Countries Milion Ton / Year
South Africa 236
Natural Gas Producer:
Countries Billion Cubic Meter
United States 583
United Kingdom nd
Saudi Arabia nd
Natural gas importer:
Countries Billion Cubic Meter
United States 84
South Korea 36
United Kingdom 26
Nuclear Electricity Production:
Number reactors Billion kWh / year
Renewable Electricity Production::
Wind + Solar + Geothermal +
548 Billion kWh / year
Estimation of Resource Energies:
The energies depend on how fossils are still left without being exploited by human society.
Currently discussing whether not renewable sources with Fossil and Nuclear Origin: Oil, Coal, Gas and Nuclear are being exhausted, and completion needs of human society can come into question. Therefore is important to be highlighted on their reserves that have remained available. The three fossil resources Oil, coal and gas are estimated to be about 400,000 EJ. Comparing this figure with global annual consumption of 474 EJ in world energy shows that reserves will suffice for about 844 years. It seems very great, to be seriously concerned. But in fact the problem is not so simple. Greater value of coal reserves that have to use their environmental pollution are the greatest. This is even more reason to use oil resources.
But the oil is also a considerable source of pollutants, so there is a tendency to use as much of natural gas from fossil fuels has three lower pollution. These requirements reduce period of time to reserve for global energy-based fossil fuels. But development using global energy production to renewable sources such as thermal and nuclear power, has made major strides improving. Nuclear Energy Reserves of Uranium this are estimated at: 2,500,000 EJ. These reserves will suffice for a period of 5.274 years.
As seen, given the ability of renewable energy reserves in the ground, apparently the main problem for the fulfillment of humanity’s global needs for energy, there is a lack of energy resources, but more global pollution of the terrestrial environment. The question is, is able living environment on planet earth pollution caused, it supports the use of so large and extended in length of time, especially fossil resources? As far as environmental pollution has found a critical limit that could put in question the existence of life on Earth. The real concern has driven mankind to produce renewable energy that absolutely do not cause global contamination surrounding environment. These are the main renewable sources: Solar Insulation, Eolic Energy, Geothermal and Biomass Energy. Only reserve of solar radiation on the surface of Planet Earth is 3,800,000 EJ / year, that is to say, even the biggest of the three existing fossil resources together. So as to be concerned about global energy reserves, the problem consists now only technological achievements that production be carried out as economic, and with much less pollution. But have in mind that different countries with diverse populations are not able to develop energy production without causing the pollution, even as the problem to arise out of control, balance global impact of life on Earth.
Despite these difficulties, let them return to the problem of meeting the global energy consumption, and this time to fill it only with the help of renewable energies. Analysis will be a transceiver for each renewable energy, to see if each of them can we meet an annual request EJ 474 fully or partially.
Despite these difficulties, let them return to the problem of meeting the global energy consumption, and this time to fill it only with the help of renewable energies. Analysis will be a transceiver for each renewable energy, to see if each of them can meet an annual request EJ 474 fully or partially.
1) The equipment system for harnessing solar energy. In this case a solar system with efficiency about 30%, will be sufficient utilization of radiation only about 1600 EJ / year, that by entering the earth’s surface, all to meet the annual global energy consumption. As seen this amount of radiation constitutes only an extremely small amount (about 0.04%) of all solar radiation that enters Earth’s atmosphere during a year.
2) The equipment system Eolic (Wind) power exploitation. With annual potential wind energy, which operates near the soil surface, estimated at about 600 EJ / year, shows that only with this type of renewable energy, is unable to fulfill all global energy needs of the world. Energy is therefore thought that it probably can afford economically part about 20 to 22% of annual global needs.
3) The system Geotermale equipment energy use. Given that the annual potential to be used is of order 500 EJ / year, this source is also not able to meet all global energy needs of the world. Therefore, energy is still thought that it could economically bear a part about 17% of annual global needs
4) The system of biomass energy use equipment. Given that the annual potential to be used is of order 250 EJ / year, even this source is not able to meet all global energy needs of the world. Energy is therefore thought that it probably can afford economically part of the needs around 8%.
5) The capacity of potential hydro-power systems, is of order 50 EJ / year. It is evident that this source is unable to meet except small portion of global energy needs of the world. Therefore, energy is thought that this possibility can not economically afford more than about 1.6% of global needs.
6) Capacity Potential Energy systems oceans, which operates near the water surface, is of order 1 EJ / year. So it can not be considered as an important source of energy assuming completion of the world needs.
Supporters of large-scale use of nuclear power can afford the of annual global needs, and insist that this energy can not be considered as it risks the use of fossil resources. With all that there is debate between environmentalists and nuclear energy. With for renewable energy sources to no warning for the environmental pollution, problem that arises is that the cost of production, that is why the main problem currently arises for economic solutions mainly for their sides. With hydropower production for 2008 was: 2.923 billion kWh / year, which constitutes only 16% of the needs of electricity generation, but not in such percentage versus global energy consumption in the world.
Then let it be noted that we have achieved what stage production of renewable resources currently?
With the three renewable energy sources Wind, Solar, Geothermal this production in 2008 was: 548 billion kWh / year, that also only 3% of electricity required in the world, but not the global energy consumption. This shows that the technologies of renewable energy sources are still in the initial stage to claim that these resources can be borne completion global consumer energy needs.
For illustration may be mentioned several achievements in the use of renewable energies, that for economic reasons and individual supplements of various states are realized, and who say we installed power: wind energy for power installed in 2010 reached 198.000 MW, being increased by about 30% each year. This is done mainly in Europe (Denmark, Spain, and Germany Portugal). While in the U.S. wind power has reached the value of about 25.000 MW
Use oil accepted by experts forecast that oil would continue to play an important role in global energy use until 2045 and the coal until 2159. But while the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise, solar power becomes more viable. Thus, in 2007 solar photovoltaic electricity production capacity reached 15 GW installed. As for heating water and environment power was 88 GW.
Something on Energy History
Coal as fuel played a role in the revolution of the century, 18 and 19. With the use of car, plane and extending the use of electricity, fuel oil became the dominant energy source during the 20 century. Coal, natural gas, nuclear energy became the preferred fuels for electricity production after working with good efficiency. We doubled the path of U.S. automobiles conducted for the same fuel consumption. Spectacular advances made in Japan, and currently has in this area with the highest performance in the world. From 1965 to 2008, using fossil fuels continues to grow. From 2003 to 2008, which represents coal fuel with polluting suffered the biggest increase in usage between fossil fuels. This mainly happened that China is using 28% of coal consumption, while other Asian countries 19%, North America 25% and Europe United 14%.