General Consumption of Global Energy

General Consumption of Global Energy

By Doc. Petraq Vasil November / 6 / 2011
General energy consumption worldwide, the needs of human society, can be calculated by accepting it as the basis of consumption for the year 2008, provided that for reasons of improving technologies and strategies implemented savings, according to specialists can be accepted a reduction of about 9 %, compared him to realize in 2008, and finally accepted value:

474 EJ / year expressed in EkzaJoule  (EkzaJoule 1 EJ = 1018 J ) or,

132 TkWh / year expressed in 1 TkWh = 1012 kWh)

( normally understood as 132.000 billion kWh / year).

In this exhibition, available to global energies, will show the consumer to realize achievements in 2008 not only as detailed consumption by countries or areas, but also how they are produced, exported these global power. Therefore these events are shown below in tabular form as a demonstration occurred in 2008.

Consumption by Energy Resource:
Resource                    
TkWh /Year          %

Oil:                                     48.2               33.5  
Coal                                   38.5               26.8
Gas                                    30.1               20..9
Nuclear                               8.3                  5.8
Hydraulic                            3.2                  2.2
Renewable                        15.3                10.6
Other                                   0.2                  0.2
Total                                143.8 
            100 %

                          Main Energy consumer:  

Territory                      Consumption        Population    TkWh /Year

                                       kWh / capita           in million

USA                                 87,216                      305                 26.6

EU -27                             40,821                      499                 20.4

Middle East                     34,774                     199                   6.9                                      

China                               18,608                  1,333                 24.8

Latin America                 14,421                     462                   6.7

Africa                                7,792                      984                  7.7

India                                  6,280                  1,140                   7.2

World                              21,283                  6,688,102        142.3

 

 

 

         Oil Producer:
Countries                Million Ton / Year
Russia                               485
Saudi Arabia                     509
SHBA                                 300
Iran                                    214
China                                 190
Canada                              155
Meksiko                             159
Venezuela                         137
Kuwait                               145
United Arab Emirates      136
Norway                             
nd
Nigeria                               nd
Total                               3,941

 

                        Furnished Oil    :                            

Countries                     TkWh / Year            %
North America             12.6                         26
Asia excl. China            9.2                         21
China                              4.1                        10
EU                                   8.1                        17
Africa                              1.6                          4
Russia                            2.8                          3
Others                            9.8                        18
Total                             48.2                      100  %

               Coal producers::
Countries                                  
TkWh / Year
North America                               6,740
Asia without China                       7,485
China                                           16,437
United Europe                              3,499
Africa                                            1,213
Russia                                          1,359
Other                                            1,763
Total                                           38,497

 

            Coal Furnished :  
Countries                     Milion Ton / Year     
China                                    2,761
U.S.                                       1,076
India                                        521
Australia                                 397

Indonesia                                284
South Africa                           236
Russia                                     323
Kazakhstan                            108
Poland                                    144
Columbia                                 79
Total                                    6,796

 

         Natural Gas Producer:
Countries                         Billion Cubic Meter
United States                               583
Russia                                          657
Canada                                        175
Iran                                               121
Norway                                        103
China                                            76
Qatar                                             79
Algeria                                          82
Netherlands                                 85
Indonesia                                     77
United Kingdom                          
nd
Saudi Arabia                                
nd
Total                                         3,149

 

 

                Natural gas importer:
Countries                         Billion Cubic Meter
Japan                                          95
Germany                                     79
United States                             84
Italy                                             77
France                                        44
Ukraine                                      53
Turkey                                        36
Spain                                          39
South Korea                              36
United Kingdom                       26
Netherlands                              
nd
Total                                        783

 

    Nuclear Electricity Production:
Number reactors                   Billion kWh / year
436                                       2,558 

 

    Renewable Electricity Production::
Wind + Solar + Geothermal +
548 Billion kWh / year

 

Estimation of Resource Energies:

The energies depend on how fossils are still left without being exploited by human society.
Currently discussing whether not renewable sources with Fossil and Nuclear Origin: Oil, Coal, Gas and Nuclear are being exhausted, and completion needs of human society can come into question. Therefore is important to be highlighted on their reserves that have remained available. The three fossil resources Oil, coal and gas are estimated to be about 400,000 EJ. Comparing this figure with global annual consumption of 474 EJ in world energy shows that reserves will suffice for about 844 years. It seems very great, to be seriously concerned. But in fact the problem is not so simple. Greater value of coal reserves that have to use their environmental pollution are the greatest. This is even more reason to use oil resources.

But the oil is also a considerable source of pollutants, so there is a tendency to use as much of natural gas from fossil fuels has three lower pollution. These requirements reduce period of time to reserve for global energy-based fossil fuels. But development using global energy production to renewable sources such as thermal and nuclear power, has made ​​major strides improving. Nuclear Energy Reserves of Uranium this are estimated at: 2,500,000 EJ. These reserves will suffice for a period of 5.274 years.

As seen, given the ability of renewable energy reserves in the ground, apparently the main problem for the fulfillment of humanity’s global needs for energy, there is a lack of energy resources, but more global pollution of the terrestrial environment. The question is, is able living environment on planet earth pollution caused, it supports the use of so large and extended in length of time, especially fossil resources? As far as environmental pollution has found a critical limit that could put in question the existence of life on Earth. The real concern has driven mankind to produce renewable energy that absolutely do not cause global contamination surrounding environment. These are the main renewable sources: Solar Insulation, Eolic Energy, Geothermal and Biomass Energy. Only reserve of solar radiation on the surface of Planet Earth is 3,800,000 EJ / year, that is to say, even the biggest of the three existing fossil resources together. So as to be concerned about global energy reserves, the problem consists now only technological achievements that production be carried out as economic, and with much less pollution. But have in mind that different countries with diverse populations are not able to develop energy production without causing the pollution, even as the problem to arise out of control, balance global impact of life on Earth.

Despite these difficulties, let them return to the problem of meeting the global energy consumption, and this time to fill it only with the help of renewable energies. Analysis will be a transceiver for each renewable energy, to see if each of them can we meet an annual request EJ 474 fully or partially.
Despite these difficulties, let them return to the problem of meeting the global energy consumption, and this time to fill it only with the help of renewable energies. Analysis will be a transceiver for each renewable energy, to see if each of them can meet an annual request EJ 474 fully or partially.

1) The equipment system for harnessing solar energy. In this case a solar system with efficiency about 30%, will be sufficient utilization of radiation only about 1600 EJ / year, that by entering the earth’s surface, all to meet the annual global energy consumption. As seen this amount of radiation constitutes only an extremely small amount (about 0.04%) of all solar radiation that enters Earth’s atmosphere during a year.
2) The equipment system Eolic (Wind) power exploitation. With annual potential wind energy, which operates near the soil surface, estimated at about 600 EJ / year, shows that only with this type of renewable energy, is unable to fulfill all global energy needs of the world. Energy is therefore thought that it probably can afford economically part about 20 to 22% of annual global needs.

3) The system Geotermale equipment energy use. Given that the annual potential to be used is of order 500 EJ / year, this source is also not able to meet all global energy needs of the world. Therefore, energy is still thought that it could economically bear a part about 17% of annual global needs

4) The system of biomass energy use equipment. Given that the annual potential to be used is of order 250 EJ / year, even this source is not able to meet all global energy needs of the world. Energy is therefore thought that it probably can afford economically part of the needs around 8%.

5) The capacity of potential hydro-power systems, is of order 50 EJ / year. It is evident that this source is unable to meet except small portion of global energy needs of the world. Therefore, energy is thought that this possibility can not economically afford more than about 1.6% of global needs.

6) Capacity Potential Energy systems oceans, which operates near the water surface, is of order 1 EJ / year. So it can not be considered as an important source of energy assuming completion of the world needs.
Supporters of large-scale use of nuclear power
can afford the of annual global needs, and insist that this energy can not be considered as it risks the use of fossil resources. With all that there is debate between environmentalists and nuclear energy.  With for renewable energy sources to no warning for the environmental pollution, problem that arises is that the cost of production, that is why the main problem currently arises for economic solutions mainly for their sides. With hydropower production for 2008 was: 2.923 billion kWh / year, which constitutes only 16% of the needs of electricity generation, but not in such percentage versus global energy consumption in the world.

Then let it be noted that we have achieved what stage production of renewable resources currently?
With the three renewable energy sources Wind, Solar, Geothermal this production in 2008 was: 548 billion kWh / year, that also only 3% of electricity required in the world, but not the global energy consumption. This shows that the technologies of renewable energy sources are still in the initial stage to claim that these resources can be borne completion global consumer energy needs.

For illustration may be mentioned several achievements in the use of renewable energies, that for economic reasons and individual supplements of various states are realized, and who say we installed power: wind energy for power installed in 2010 reached 198.000 MW, being increased by about 30% each year. This is done mainly in Europe (Denmark, Spain, and Germany Portugal). While in the U.S. wind power has reached the value of about 25.000 MW

Use oil accepted by experts forecast that oil would continue to play an important role in global energy use until 2045 and the coal until 2159. But while the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise, solar power becomes more viable. Thus, in 2007 solar photovoltaic electricity production capacity reached 15 GW installed. As for heating water and environment power was 88 GW.

                                   Something on Energy History
Coal as fuel played a role in the revolution of the century, 18 and 19. With the use of car, plane and extending the use of electricity, fuel oil became the dominant energy source during the 20 century. Coal, natural gas, nuclear energy became the preferred fuels for electricity production after working with good efficiency.
We doubled the path of U.S. automobiles conducted for the same fuel consumption. Spectacular advances made in Japan, and currently has in this area with the highest performance in the world. From 1965 to 2008, using fossil fuels continues to grow. From 2003 to 2008, which represents coal fuel with polluting suffered the biggest increase in usage between fossil fuels. This mainly happened that China is using 28% of coal consumption, while other Asian countries 19%, North America 25% and Europe  United 14%.

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